Antibiotic resistance occurs when the bacteria able to resist the effect of antibiotics by changing itself in some way, in other words, losing antibiotic effectiveness to kill the bacteria is known as antibiotic resistance.
In the case of antibiotic resistance, bacteria can multiply again and again in the presence of therapeutic level that can cause or worsen the diseases. Bacteria that are resistant to the many antibiotics are known as ” multi-antibiotic-resistance”.
Key Facts Of Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic resistance is the major menace to global health.
According to studies, consumption of antibiotics increased 65% from 2000 to 2015, driven by users in low and middle-income countries. In Asia, consumption of antibiotics more doubled in India. A number of infection is harder to treat because antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
There are various bacterias which developed the antibiotic resistance are given below:
– Staphylococcus aureus (‘golden staph’ or MRSA)
– Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the cause of gonorrhea) are now almost always resistant to benzylpenicillin.
– Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
– Multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
– Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) gut bacteria.
How Does The Antibiotic Resistance Occur??
Antibiotic resistance occurs by means of transferring their genetic material by three methods: Conju
gation, Transduction, Transformation. Antibiotics kill the sensitive bacteria but the resistant germs may be left to grow and multiply on administration which promotes the antibiotic resistance in the body. Continue use antibiotics may lead to increase in drug-resistant bacteria then it would show their severe impact on the body.
Causes Of Antibiotic Resistance
– poor infection control in health care,
– poor hygiene and sanitation,
– an absence of new antibiotics,
– over-prescription of antibiotics,
– overuse of antibiotics,
– patients not completing their complete course of medications.
Ways To Prevent Antibiotic Resistance
– use only that antibiotics that doctor prescribes you, not the other ones.
– never share antibiotics with others and not use the leftover prescription.
– don’t use the leftover medications once you have completed your prescribed course of treatment to prevent antibiotic resistance.
– don’t use the antibiotics for the infection like flu, cold, ear infection, sore throat, most coughs, and bronchitis; use the alternative methods to treat.
– If the doctor concluded that you do not have a bacterial infection then don’t pressurize for prescribing antibiotics.
– Always complete your medication course if treatment stops soon, some bacteria resist and infect your body.
– prepare food hygienically, by following the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food
Antibiotic resistance can be transferred through the environment and community.
1. Infection Control In Hospital
– invest in research and development of new antibiotics.
– maintain the good personal hygiene, don’t come in contact with the contaminated stuff, hands of hospital staff, and patients. Wash your hands before and after patient contact, use the antiseptic solutions.
– appropriate handling of equipment, needles, and clinical wastes.
– use the wearables such as gloves, gowns, masks.
2. Agriculture Sector
– use alternative antibiotics and to reduce the need for antibiotics by vaccinating them.
– give antibiotics to animals under the veterinary supervision.
– maintain proper hygiene and animal welfare by improving biosecurity to prevent infection.
– endorse good practices in the production and processing of foods from animal and plant sources.
Is Probiotics Help In Reducing The Antibiotic Resistance?
Probiotics contain living micro-organisms which provide health benefits. But it couldn’t prove that it is useful for drug-resistant infection. CDC actively researching on this topic.
Antibiotic resistance also developed from the acne medications because of acne medications contain antibiotics so, the treatment and prevention of the acne should be under the directions of healthcare professionals who ensure the appropriate use and detection of resistance of short and long-term use of antibiotics.